Urine Glucose

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The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria. Glucose can be measured with Benedict's Test. Although glucose is easily filtered in the glomerulus, it is not present in the urine because all of the glucose that is filtered is normally reabsorbed from the renal tubules back into the blood.
This test is most commonly used to screen for diabetes.

Test results
Abnormal glucose values may indicative of:
·Renal Glycosuria. Glucose release from the kidneys into the urine.  
·Diabetes Mellitus  
·Renal glycosuria during pregnancy  
·After excessive consumption of carbohydrates  
Less than 0.1% of glucose normally filtered by the glomerulus appears in urine (< 130 mg/24 hr). Glycosuria (excess sugar in urine) generally means diabetes mellitus. Dipsticks employing the glucose oxidase reaction for screening are specific for glucos glucose but can miss other reducing sugars such as galactose and fructose. For this reason, most newborn and infant urines are routinely screened for reducing sugars by methods other than glucose oxidase (such as the Clinitest, a modified Benedict's copper reduction test).
Drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements include:
· Aminosalicylic acid  
· Cephalosporins  
· Chloral hydrate  
· Chloramphenicol  
· Dextrothyroxine  
· Diazoxide  
· Diuretics (loop and thiazides)  
· Estrogens  
· Ifosfamide  
· Isoniazid  
· Levodopa  
· Lithium  
· Nafcillin  
· Nalidixic acid  
· Nicotinic acid (large doses)  

Also you should know
However, the renal threshold for glucose can be lower in some people who are otherwise healthy, during pregnancy, and in people who have a kidney disease. In these people, glucose may be present in the urine despite the blood glucose being normal. This can sometimes make urine glucose tests difficult to interpret.
A urine glucose test does not reflect your blood glucose level at the time of testing; instead, it gives an indication of your blood glucose level over the past several hours. For example, some of the urine present in your bladder may be 2 hours old, and may show glucose even though your blood glucose may have normalised since then. Compare this to a blood glucose test which gives you a reading of your current blood glucose level.
A urine glucose test does not give you any information about low blood glucose levels, as glucose is only found in the urine when the blood glucose level is above 10 mmol/L. That is, a negative urine glucose test may be the result of a normal blood glucose level or a dangerously low blood glucose level, with the urine glucose test unable to differentiate between the 2 situations.
The results of a urine glucose test are influenced by the volume and concentration of urine that you pass, which will vary with the amount of fluid you consume and your fluid loss due to such things as heavy sweating or vomiting.
Urine glucose tests designed for home use rely on interpreting a colour change to define the result. Subtle colour differences may be difficult to interpret.
If a urine glucose test is not read at the specified time after applying the urine to the test strip, then the result is prone to error.
Some medications may interfere with the results of urine glucose testing.


Read more about Glucose.
All information on this page is intended for your general knowledge only and does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.