Phosphate (P) in Urine

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The 24 hours phosphate urine test measures the amount of phosphate in a sample of urine. Phosphate is a charged ion that accumulates the mineral phosphorus. The human organism needs phosphorus to build and reconstruct bones and teeth, help nerves function, and make muscles contract. About 85% of the phosphorus contained in phosphate located in bones. Other part of it is found in tissues throughout the body.

The kidneys control the phosphate amount. Excess of phosphate is filtered by the kidneys and passes out in the urine. If there is not enough phosphate, less is found in the urine. A higher than normal level of phosphate in the urine may be caused by a kidney problem. High levels also may be caused by eating a meal high in phosphorus or by an overactive parathyroid gland.

Test results
Hypophosphatemia - low phosphorus levels may be associated with:
·Hypercalcemia, especially due to hyperparathyroidism  
·Overuse of diuretics  
·Severe burns  
·Diabetic ketoacidosis (after treatment)  
·Chronic antacid use  
·Rickets and osteomalacia (due to Vitamin D deficiencies)  
·Too little dietary intake of phosphate or vitamin D, resulting in rickets (childhood) or osteomalacia (adult)  
Hyperphosphatemia - high phosphorus levels may be associated with:
·Kidney failure  
·Hypoparathyroidism (underactive parathyroid gland)  
·Diabetic ketoacidosis (when first seen)  
·Increased dietary or intravenous (IV) intake (phosphate supplementation)  
·Liver disorder  
·Renal failure  
·Bone metastasis  
·Too much vitamin D  
·Use of certain medications such as phosphate, containing laxatives  

Also you should know
Higher than normal levels of phosphorus (phosphate) can draw to organ damage due to calcification, deposits of calcium phosphate in the tissues.
Children normally have higher phosphate levels than adults have because kids' bones are actively growing. Low phosphate levels in children may restrain bone growth.
Packaged drinks and pre-packaged food products are high in phosphorus content, which some nutritionists believe contributes to over use of phosphorus.
Blood and urine levels of phosphorus can be changed by the use of enemas and laxatives containing sodium phosphate, excess dietary Vitamin D supplements, and by intravenous glucose administration.

Only about half of the phosphorus in plant sources such as beans, lentils, grains, peanuts and almonds is available to human organism since we lack the enzymes to process it. An exception to this is yeast breads because yeast provides the necessary enzyme.

Anomalous levels of phosphorus are usually detected because of the relationship with and effect on calcium. Calcium is a routine test that is a part of the Comprehensive Metabolic Panel and Basic Metabolic Panel (CMP and BMP). These tests are frequently ordered. If you have abnormal calcium level physician usually will check your phosphorus levels.

All information on this page is intended for your general knowledge only and does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.