Urine Casts

Would you like to know what lab results mean? Medical Tests Analyzer Software will explain and clarify your lab test report.

Urinary casts are tiny tube-shaped particles made up of white blood cells, red blood cells, or kidney cells. They form in kidney structures called tubules. Casts are held together by a protein released by the kidney. The content of a cast can tell your health care provider whether your urine is healthy or abnormal.

Casts and cellular debris originate from higher up in the urinary tract, such as in the kidneys. These are material shed from kidney cell lining due to injury or inflammation and travel down through the urinary tubes. These usually suggest an injury to the kidney from an inflammation or lack of blood flow to the kidneys. Rarely, tumor cells can be in the urine suggesting a urinary tract cancer.

Types of urinary casts include:
·Fatty casts  
·Granular casts  
·Hyaline casts  
·Red blood cell casts  
·Renal tubular epithelial casts  
·Waxy casts  
·White blood cell casts  

Test results
Abnormal results may include:
·Fatty casts are seen in people who have lipids in urine, usually as a complication of nephrotic syndrome.  
·Granular casts are a sign of underlying kidney disorder. However, they are nonspecific and may be found in people with many different kidney diseases.  
·Hyaline casts are usually caused by dehydration, exercise, or diuretic medicines.  
·Red blood cell casts are a sign of bleeding into the kidney tubule. They are seen in many disorders affecting the glomerulus, including IgA nephropathy, lupus nephritis, Goodpasture syndrome, and Wegener's granulomatosis.  
·Renal tubular epithelial cell casts reflect damage to the tubules. They are seen in renal tubular necrosis, viral disorder (such as CMV nephritis), and transplant rejection.  
·Waxy casts are associated with advanced kidney disorder and chronic kidney failure.  
·White blood cell (WBC) casts are more common in interstitial cell kidney disorders such as interstitial inflammation, pyelonephritis, and parenchymal infection.  
This test may also present:
·Acute nephritic syndrome  
·Glomerulonephritis - chronic  
·Glomerulonephritis - post-streptococcal  
·Glomerulonephritis - rapidly progressive  
·Complicated urinary tract infection  
·Necrotizing vasculitis  
·Primary amyloid  
·Secondary amyloid  
·Systemic lupus erythematosus  

Also you should know
The numbers and types of cells and/or material such as urinary casts can yield a great detail of information and may suggest a specific diagnosis:
·Hematuria - associated with kidney stones, infections, tumors and other conditions  
·Pyuria - associated with urinary infections  
·Eosinophiluria - associated with allergic interstitial nephritis, atheroembolic disorder  
·Red blood cell casts - associated with glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, malignant hypertension  
·White blood cell casts - associated with acute interstitial nephritis, exudative glomerulonephritis, severe pyelonephritis  
·(heme) granular casts - associated with acute tubular necrosis  
·Crystalluria -- associated with acute urate nephropathy (or "Acute uric acid nephropathy", AUAN)  
·Calcium oxalatin - associated with ethylene glycol toxicity  

All information on this page is intended for your general knowledge only and does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.